Another resource for students to learn how to inference comes from Kylene Beers and Bob Probst’s Notice and Note (2012; 2015) signposts.
For both fiction and nonfiction, students are guided to find “contrasts and contradictions” from what they have previously read.
For fiction, it focuses in on what a character says or does that contradicts with what the character has already said or done in the text. It could also be something the character says or does that is unexpected. Upon noticing this contradiction, Beers and Probst guide the reader to ask themselves, “Why is the character doing that?” This is an effective strategy for characterization, which will be discussed later on in this chapter.
With an information text, the reader is being asked to notice and note when the author presents information that is different from what the student knew or thought, or shows a change between things/people/ideas. The reader is then asked to stop and wonder about this difference.